Wait Time

Why It's Worth The Wait

Providing wait time is an instructional strategy often recommended by teachers. But how do we know it works? Emily and Allana take a closer look at the strategy and provide you with some research into the educational strategy “wait time” and why waiting is worth the effort.


Main reference article:

Johnson, N. & Parker, A. T. (2013). Effects of wait time when communicating with children who have sensory and additional disabilities. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 107(5), 363-374.


Browder, D., Ahlgrim-Delzell, L., Spooner, F., Mims, P. J., & Baker, J. N. (2009). Using time delay to teach literacy to students with severe developmental disabilities. Exceptional Children, 75(3), 343-364. 

Bruce, S. M., Bashinski, S. M., Covelli, A. J., Bernstein, V., Zatta, M. C., & Brigs, S. (2018). Positive behaviour supports for individuals who are deafblind with CHARGE syndrome. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness 112(5), 497-508. 

Bruce, S. M., Nelson, C., Perez, A., Stutzman, B., & Barnhill, B. A. (2016). The state of research on communication and literacy in deafblindness. American Annals of the Deaf, 161(4), 424-443. 

Doyle, P. M., Gast, D. L., Wolery, M., & Ault, M. J. (1990). Use of constant time delay in small group instruction: A study of observational and incidental learning. The Journal of Special Education 23(4), 369-385. ​​​​

Miles, B. & Riggio, M. (1999). Remarkable conversations: A guide to developing meaningful communication with children and adults who are deafblind. Watertown, MA: Perkins School for the Blind. 

Schuster, J. W. & Griffen, A. K. (1990). Using time delay with task analyses. Teaching Exceptional Children, 22(4), 49-53.

Stevens, K. B., & Schuster, J. W., (1988). Time delay: Systematic instruction for academic tasks. Remedial And Special Education 9(5), 16-21. 

Vervloed, M. P. J., van Dijk, R. J. M., Knoors, H., van Dijk, J. P. M. (2006). Interaction between the teacher and the congenitally deafblind child. American Annals of the Deaf, 151(3), 336-344.